In modern terminology, the button is known as a small fastener, commonly made up of plastic that combines and secures two pieces of fabric. Buttons that serve as fasteners, work by slipping through the thread loop, buttonhole or fabric. Mostly buttons are attached to clothing articles such as dress shirts, coats and jackets. Buttons are also used in containers like wallets and bags. In many clothing item articles, buttons are sewn onto garments for the purposes of ornamentation.
The buttons or button-like objects were first discovered in the Indus Valley Civilization in Kot Diji and Bronze Age during 2800-1500 BCE. In that period, buttons are believed to be made up of seashells and other geometric shapes. These button-like objects had holes in them so that they could be attached to clothing with thread.
Originally, buttons were only used for ornamentation purposes rather than fastening, were made up of curved shell and are about 5000 years old. Proper functional buttons, used for fastening clothes were first appeared in Germany in 13th century and later in 14th century it become popular in Europe with the rise of snug fitting garments.
Throughout the history, buttons have been manufactured from every possible material. Both natural and synthetic or combination of both has been used in button manufacturing. Buttons crafted by craftspeople and artists from raw materials or found objects are called art objects. Buttons made by artists are art objects and are considered as very valuable objects. These days, hard plastic, wooden or seashells are most commonly used button materials.